CBD Dog Treats
Accurate science and pseudoscience can be difficult to distinguish, especially nowadays when there is tons of information thrown all over the internet. Pseudoscience is a system of theories or beliefs disguised as science in an attempt to seem legitimate without going through the proper scientific methods and experimentation which provide credibility. The purpose behind pseudoscience is more likely than not for the benefit of the person/organization behind the writing. Whether it is someone trying to persuade you into investing in their company/product, or simply just believing in what they are writing, they are the ones gaining something from it. Real scientists set aside their own beliefs and biases to inform the general audience of evidence-based material that has been tested, peer-reviewed, and proven true, over and over again. Scientists can verify their theories are facts, not fiction, by using scientific methods and publishing them in scholarly articles whereas pseudoscience can usually be found on any basic website. A few ways to differentiate between science and pseudoscience is by looking at the source – check whether it is published in a magazine article, newspaper ad, or scholarly article. Ask yourself what the purpose of the writing is, and if it includes testimonials, beware – anyone can write a testimony, especially for money. Look out for conspiracy theories as well, if a sentence starts with “the government doesn’t want you to know..” it is most likely just an attention-grabbing statement. It is important to do your research when reading articles to be vigilant on what is fiction and nonfiction. Contrary to popular belief that CBD is used to reduce anxiety in dogs, evidence confirms that it in fact does not have an anxiolytic effect on canines.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active ingredient in the cannibis hemp plant. Since the use of cannabinoids has been illegal in the US until recent, research on CBD has been limited. Cannabis is now reported to have a wide range of therapeutic benefits in many conditions and disorders (Yu & Rupasinghe, 2021). The online magazine Washingtonian includes an article on the top five brands that sell CBD treats for dogs. Each brand sells a variety of treats. For example, HonestPaws sells treats with different textures from soft and chewy to hard and crunchy (Washingtonian, 2021). CbdMD sells actual peanut butter infused with different concentrations of CBD for dogs (Washingtonian, 2021). Among the top five CBD pet brands, Anxiouspet promotes their products with one major goal, to reduce anxiety in pets (Washingtonian, 2021). The article shares that there is plenty of evidence that demonstrates how well CBD works for dogs, including relieving stress and anxiety (Washingtonian, 2021). The column also states that CBD has been shown to significantly increase the quality of life for canines (Washingtonian, 2021). There is also a link provided of a study that was done in 2019 to assess the safety and adverse effects of CBD administered to cats and dogs (Deabold et al., 2019).
Despite the claims in the Washingtonian feature and providing a link to the scholarly article, Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats, it actually states, “To date, there is little information related to appropriate dosing or long-term effects on serum chemistry or complete blood counts (CBC), and little data on the pharmacokinetics of single- or long-term dosing in dogs and cats” (Deabold et al., 2019). An uncontrolled, preliminary study was conducted over a 12 week period, administering 2mg/kg total CBD concentration orally twice daily to healthy adult cats and dogs, with screening of single-dose pharmacokinetics in six of each species (Deabold et al., 2019). The study closes with, “In conclusion, hemp-based CBD appears to be relatively safe in healthy populations of dogs and cats, and dogs appear to absorb CBD better than cats. Continued clinical follow up is essential in those patients undergoing long-term use with naturally occurring disease who may be on other treatments for their ailments. Further studies are warranted to determine safety in dogs and cats” (Deabold et al., 2019). Another study was conducted more recently in 2020 and found the following:
“Sixteen dogs were utilized in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial, consisting of control, 25 mg CBD, trazodone and the combination of CBD and trazodone. A fireworks model of noise-induced fear was used to assess CBD effectiveness after 7 d of supplementation. Each test lasted a total of 6 min and consisted of a 3 min environmental habituation phase with no noise and a 3 min noise phase with a fireworks track. CBD tended to increase HR and decreased the peak of low- and high-frequency bands. These results do not support an anxiolytic effect of CBD in dogs given 1.4 mg CBD/kg” (Morris et al., 2020).
In closing, the claims that CBD products reduce anxiety and improve the quality of life in canines are not exactly valid. Although CBD products are generally considered safe for cats and dogs to consume, further studies need to be conducted in order to establish evidence that it does in fact provide all the amazing things the Washingtonian magazine states, such as mobility and joint support, pain relief, stress and anxiety management, and boosting the immune system (Washingtonian, 2021). Clinical studies have shown that these allegations are non-credible. Lastly, this demonstrates that even though a piece of writing provides a link to a scholarly article, it does not make the writing credible science.
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Best CBD dog treats – top brands of 2021: Washingtonian (DC). Washingtonian. (2021, January 19). Retrieved October 25, 2021, from https://www.washingtonian.com/2021/01/18/best-cbd-dog-treats/.
Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats. Animals, 9(10), 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100832
Morris, E. M., Kitts-Morgan, S. E., Spangler, D. M., McLeod, K. R., Costa, J. H. C., & Harmon, D. L. (2020). The Impact of Feeding Cannabidiol (CBD) Containing Treats on Canine Response to a Noise-Induced Fear Response Test. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.569565
Yu, C. H., & Rupasinghe, H. V. (2021). Cannabidiol-based natural health products for companion animals: Recent advances in the management of anxiety, pain, and inflammation. Research in Veterinary Science, 140, 38–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.08.001